About South Sudan
Modern Sudan emerged during the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium(1898-1955). During this time, Britain and Egypt occupied Sudan, with separate administrative arrangements for the north and south. Sudan became independent at the beginning of 1956 and faced long civil wars in the decades that followed. Between 1955 and 2005, northern and South Sudan experienced conflict and war for all but a few years.
On 9 January 2005, the leaders of the North and South Sudan signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). It granted partial- autonomy to Southerners and a new Interim Constitution was developed and put in place. Under the terms of the peace, the SPLM/A leader John Garang became the First Vice-President of the Republic of Sudan, and President of the Government of Southern Sudan. Barely three weeks after being sworn into office in July 2005, John Garang died in an aircraft accident. Following the incident, SPLM/A leaders sat, nominated and installed Salva Kiir Mayardit as leader of SPLM/A and president of the Government of Southern Sudan – GoSS.
The current States of South Sudan, 2020
South Sudan as of July 2020 is having 10 states. The following are the names of the states and their corresponding capitals;
Central Equatoria, Juba
Eastern Equatoria, Torit
Jonglei State, Bor
Upper Nile State, Malakal
Western Bahr El Ghazal, Wau
Lakes State, Rumbek
Northern Bahr El Ghazal, Aweil
Unity State, Bentiu
Warrap State, Kuajok
Western Equatoria, Yambio
Development in South Sudan
Development in South Sudan was and is still seen as key to the:
improvement of livelihoods amongst communities that have been engaged in more than 30 years of civil wars. With a population of about 12 million people, South Sudan remains one of the least developed nations in the world with no or few infrastructures such as roads, bridges, schools, hospitals and accommodation; exposing the majority of the population to low standards of living and livelihoods. In South Sudan, the memories of crimes committed during the years of civil wars are still fresh. These bitter memories were worsened by the December 15, 2013 incident that claimed ten of thousands of lives and displaced over 2 million people and forced over 500,000 people into refugees in East African countries (Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda).
The recently signed 2015 “Compromise Peace Agreement – CPA-II” raised hope for a possible reconciliation between the communities and the warring parties are expected to open up wider and conducive political space for increased citizen participation in decision-making mechanism, justice, rule of law and development.
Key facts on South Sudan
The total population of about 12 millions people
51% of the population live below the poverty line
25% of people are estimated to have access to health services
50.8% of the country population is classified as malnourished
27% of adults are literate; net attendance rates in schools is 40%
16% of women are literate
42% of civil servants have no more than primary school education
80% of South Sudanese use customary rather than formal justice mechanisms
The total fertility rate is estimated at 6.7%;
The annual population growth rate is 2.2%, and the average life expectancy is 42 years of age.
South Sudan’s developmental & infrastructural background
South Sudan has the dubious distinction of having some of the worst development indicators in the world. It needs basic development in all aspects including physical infrastructures, health, food, security, stability, shelter and technology.
Inaccessibility of conflict-affected areas is quite a challenge. Thus there is all the more need to fast-track operations from emergency to recovery; from relief and finally development. The need for demining explosive remnants of conflict that contaminate roads, towns, and agricultural areas is paramount. The population needs to be equipped to participate in nation rebuilding to control environmental factors caused by flooding during wet seasons and loss of livestock and hunger gap during the dry season. In a state of conflict, complex protocols are required for relief and humanitarian access to civilians in need. The logistical environment is very difficult with an urgent need for infrastructure upgrades. Improvements in road access during the dry season risk being offset by increasing insecurity and checkpoints.