Modern Sudan emerged during the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium(1898-1955). During this time, Britain and Egypt occupied Sudan, with separate administrative arrangements for the north and south. Sudan became independent at the beginning of 1956 and faced long civil wars in the decades that followed. Between 1955 and 2005, northern and South Sudan experienced conflict and war for all but a few years.
On 9 January 2005, the leaders of the North and South Sudan signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). It granted partial- autonomy to Southerners and a new Interim Constitution was developed and put in place. Under the terms of the peace, the SPLM/A leader John Garang became the First Vice-President of the Republic of Sudan, and President of the Government of Southern Sudan. Barely three weeks after being sworn into office in July 2005, John Garang died in an aircraft accident. Following the incident, SPLM/A leaders sat, nominated and installed Salva Kiir Mayardit as leader of SPLM/A and president of the Government of Southern Sudan – GoSS.